CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH
1. DEFINITION, PARADIGM, AND THEORI
Action research is a simply form of collective self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own social or educational practices, as well as their understanding of those practices and the situations in which the practices are carried out… The approach is only action research when it is collaborative, though it is important to realise that action research of the group is achieved through the critically examined action of individual group members. (Kemmis and McTaggart 1988: 5-6)
Action research is classroom-based research conducted by teachers in order to reflect upon and evolve their teaching. It is a systematic, documented inquiry into one aspect of teaching and learning in a specific classroom. (Conducting Action Research In The Foreign Language Classroom Northeast Conference 1998 New York, Ny Anna Uhl Chamot Sarah Barnhardt Susan Dirstine Materials Contributor: Jennifer Kevorkian)
Action research did suffer a decline in favour during the 1960s because of its association with radical political activism (Stringer 2007: 9). There were, and are, questions concerning its rigour, and the training of those undertaking it. However, as Bogdan and Biklen (1992: 223) point out, research is a frame of mind – ‘a perspective that people take toward objects and activities’. Once we have satisfied ourselves that the collection of information is systematic, and that any interpretations made have a proper regard for satisfying truth claims, then much of the critique aimed at action research disappears. In some of Lewin’s earlier work on action research (e.g. Lewin and Grabbe 1945)
Action research termasuk penelitian kualitatif walaupun data yang dikumpulkan bisa saja bersifat kuantitatif. Action research berbeda dengan penelitian formal, yang bertujuan untuk menguji hipotesis dan membangun teori yang bersifat umum (general). Action research lebih bertujuan untuk memperbaiki kinerja, sifatnya kontekstual dan hasilnya tidak untuk digeneralisasi. Namun demikian hasil action research dapat saja diterapkan oleh orang lain yang mempunyai latar yang mirip dengan yang dimliki peneliti. (penelitian tindakan kelas/classroom action research by Dr. Supriyadi M. Pd)
What is Classroom Action Research?
Classroom Action Research is an activity undertaken by teachers to improve their performance and teaching skills in the classroom. They do it by evaluating their teaching approaches and then making improvements. By doing this repeatedly, they should improve their performance and skills. (Training in Applicative Classroom Action Research)
Classroom Action Research is the process through which the teachers collaborate in evaluating their practice jointly; raise awareness of their personal theory; articulate a shared conception of values; tryout new strategies to render the values expressed in their practice more consistent with the educational values they espouse; record their work in a form which is readily available to and understandable by other teachers; and thus develop a shared theory of teaching by researching practice (John Elliot)
Penelitian tindakan merupakan intervensi praktik dunia nyata yang ditujukan untuk meningkatkan situasi praktis. Tentu penelitian tindakan yang dilakukan oleh guru ditujukan untuk meningkatkan situasi pembelajaran yang menjadi tanggung jawabnya dan ia disebut ’penelitian tindakan kelas’ atau PTK. (Prof. Dr. Suwarsih Madya)
Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK) merupakan suatu pencermatan terhadap kegiatan belajar berupa sebuah tindakan yang sengaja dimunculkan dan terjadi dalam sebuah kelas secara bersama. (Penelitian Tindakan, by Pror.Suharsimi Arikunto,dkk.)
Classroom Action Research is research designed to help a teacher find out what is happening in her or his classroom, and to use that information to make wise decisions for the future. Method can be qualitative or quantitative, descriptive or experimental. (Indiana University South Bend, Division of Education)
2. THE SYNTHESIS
From all the definitions of Research Action and Classroom Action Research we can make conclusion and the simple definition
Action Research is the research or investigating which is done by participants in social situation in order to improve their social practice, their understanding, and the situation of something which is observed more deeply. Here, the scope is wider than Classroom Action Research; it includes the social world or situation not the educational situational only. The researcher is not only teacher but also it can be the government or social institution.
While Classroom Action Research is the action research which happens in a classroom (educational situation) about the problem during the process of teaching and learning activities which is done by the teacher to raise awareness of his or her personal theory; tryout new strategies; record their work in a form which is readily available to and understandable by other teachers; and thus develop a shared theory of teaching; and also to improve his or her skill especially his or her professionalism.
3. THE REVIEW
A. The Concept of Classroom Action Research
Classroom action research begins with a question or questions about classroom experiences, issues, or challenges. It is a reflective process which helps teachers to explore and examine aspects of teaching and learning and to take action to change and improve. The purpose of teacher research is to gain understanding of teaching and learning within one’s classroom and to use that knowledge to increase teaching efficacy/student learning.
Research in English learning is a scientific activity that aims at investigating the rules that work in the process of English learning. Research activities in English learning cover four steps: observing, describing, analyzing, and explaining. The way each step is done depends on the nature of the data and the objective of the research. Classroom Action Research for English Learning aims at developing a certain instructional strategy to solve practical instructional problems in English classrooms. Each English learner is basically able to learn English provided that he or she is given the appropriate help as each learner has his or her own style and strategy of learning. Classroom Action Research for English Learning aims at discovering learning-teaching strategies that match learners’ style and strategies in learning English. Classroom Action Research is done in several cycles each of which is repeated in the following cycle if the result is not satisfactory yet with the better revised lesson plan. Each cycle begins with lesson planning, implementing the plan (acting), observing the implementation, and reflecting or evaluating the process and the result of the implementation. The result of the reflection determines the following cycle:
Those four components are related each ther as a cylce.
Planning is the first step the researcher has to do before doing something. The planning is expected to be futuristic and flexible to face some non-anticipated effects. By the planning, we can prepare to handle the troubles early. By a good planning, a researcher can be easier to face some problems and it will be more effective in doing research.
The Planning's Principle
Those five principles should be considered in the planning step.
Acting is an applying of the planning. It can be a teaching method applying that has a purpose to repair or complete a certain model.
That action can be applied by the persons who are involved in the applying a teaching method which the result also will be sude for completing in doing assignment.
observing is used to see and and capture some influences caused by a classroom action. This observation's result is a basic of doing reflection so that the research should be able to show the real situation. In the observation, the researcher should take a note of the process of action, the action's effetcs, environment, and some troubles.
Reflecting consists of : analysis, synthesis, interpretation, explanation, and conclusion. The reflection's result is having revision of the planning which has been done, and it can be used for repairing the teacher's performance in the future. Thereby, the action research can't be held in only one meeting because it needs more time to do the reflection's result as a planning for the cycle after.
B. The Types of Classroom Action research
There are four types of Classroom Action Research:
1) Diagnostic type
The research that leads the researcher to an action because there is a problem happens. e.g. there is a conflict between students in a class, etc.
2) Participant type
The research which is the researcher involved directly from start till final.
3) Empirical type
The research is done by a planning to take a note of the process and evaluate the process out of the class. So, the researcher should collaborate with the teacher who does the classroom action.
4) Experimental type
The research is done as the way of applying some techniques, methods, or strategies in the teaching and learning process effectively and efficiently.
C. Characteristics of Classroom Action Research
There is no population or sample in CAR because it will not interest inference.
It emphasizes the action than the method.
It is done ideally by the researcher who knows the problem which is happening clearly, teacher or lecturer.
It is done in a cycle – as written in the "planning principle" above –. In every new cycle, ideally there will be significant difference with the previous cycle. It means the cycle in the previous research is not effective enough to solve the problem faced by the researcher.
Discussing among the researcher, collaborator, participant, and expert should be done during the Classroom Action Research.
Its result can be immediately applied and long range
an inquiry on practice from within
a collaborative effort between school teachers and teacher educators
reflective practice made public
D. Purpose and Significance
The purposes of Classroom Action Research:
to understand more about teaching and learning
to develop teaching skills and knowledge
to improve students learning
The significances of Classroom Action Research:
provides a framework for trying out different approaches and ideas
helps develop reflective practice
enables teachers to make choices and decisions about their teaching styles
helps develop confidence
helps teachers improve student learning
- Arikunto, Suharsimi, dkk. (2008). Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta: PT Bumi Aksara.
- Conducting Action Research In The Foreign Language Classroom Northeast Conference 1998 New York, Ny Anna Uhl Chamot Sarah Barnhardt Susan Dirstine Materials Contributor: Jennifer Kevorkian.
- How To Do Action research In Your Classroom Lessons From The Teachers Network Leadership Institute, By Frances Rust And Christopher Clark.
- Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, by Igak Wardni, dkk.
- Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Ditjen Dikti, Proyek Pengembangan Guru Sekolah Menengah. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (Classroom Action research). IBRD OAN No 3979 – IND.
- Smith, M. K. (1996; 2001, 2007) 'Action research', the encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/research/b-actres.htm